Introduction - Section I

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The initial section of this e-book, "The Field of Instructional Technology," is designed to provide you with an introduction to the field. It is not intended to be a definitive overview of the nature of instructional technology, only a starting point for your own exploration of this ever-changing field. In this regard it is fitting that the first three chapters provide an initial exploration of three novices in the field.

These chapter were written during the summer of 2004 by three doctoral students at the University of Georgia. At the conclusion of their first year of studies, they struggled with the fundamental question of what was instructional technology and proposed an independent study course under the guidance of Drs. Janette Hill and Michael Orey to explore that very issue.

Soliciting the opinions of twelve faculty members at the University of Georgia, the students developed a reading list with the prompt, "If there were two pieces that you think every doctoral student in instructional technology should read, what would they be?" This list included articles, chapters, and books related to the past, present and future of the field. Selections focused specifically upon technologies used in instructional technology, the "Great Media Debate", and theories and ideas borrowed from other fields (for a complete list see the References section).

As deliverables for this course, each student authored a manuscript: one on the history of instructional technology, one on the present state of instructional technology, and one on where the field of instructional technology may be headed. These three manuscripts form the first three chapters of this e-book. These chapters have not been updated from their 2004 forms, as the editors feel that they represent a good starting point for those struggling with the same issues that these three students had.

The final chapter of this section is a condensed version of the latest definition of educational technology as produced by the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) - the professional organization for many in the field of instructional technology - which replaces the one put forth by Seels and Richey (1994). This new definition was written by a committee of academics assembled by AECT and released at their annual convention in Orlando in October 2005.

References

Anderson, Reder, & Simon, (1996). Situated Learning and education. Educational Researcher, 25(4), 5-11.

Anglin, G. (1995). Instructional technology: Past, present, and future (2nd ed.). Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, Inc.

Bransford, J.D., Vye, N., Kinzer, C. & Risko, R. (1990). Teaching thinking and content knowledge: Toward an integrated approach. In B. Jones & L. Idol (Eds) Dimensions of thinking and cognitive instruction (pp. 381-413). Hillsdale, NJ: Earlbaum.

Brown, J.S., Collins, A. & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18(1), 23-42.

Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt (1990). Anchored instruction and its relationship to situated cognition. Educational Researcher, 19(6), 2-10.

Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt (1993). Anchored instruction and situated cogniton revisited. Educational Technology, 33(3), 52-70.

Clark, R.E. (1983). Reconsidering research on learning from media. Review of Educational Research, 17(2), 92-101.

Clark, R.E. (1994). Media will never influence learnng. Educational Technology Research & Development, 42(2), 21-29.

Driscoll, M. P. (2000). Psychology of learning for instruction (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Estes, F., & Clark, R.E. (1999). Authentic educational technology: The lynchpin between theory and practice. Educational Technology, 39(2), 5-13.

Gallini, J. & Barron, D. (2001-2002). Participants' perceptions of web-infused environments: A survey of teaching belies, learning approaches, and communications. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 34(2), 139-156.

Glaser, R. (1976). Components of a pyschology of instruction: Toward a science of design. Review of Educational Research, 46(1), 1-24.

Glaser, R (1990). The reemergence of learning theory within instructional research. American Psychologist, 45, 29-39.

Hill, J.R., & Hannafin, M.J. (2001). Teaching and learning in digital environments: the resurgence of resource-based learning. Educational Technology Research & Design, 49(3), 37-52.

Hooper, S., & Rieber, L.P. (1995). Teaching with technology. In A.C. Ornstein (Ed.), Teaching: Theory into practice, (pp. 154-170). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

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Jonassen, D. (1991). Objectivism versus constructivism: Do we need a new philosophical paradigm? Educational Technology Research & Development, 39(3), 5-14.

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Pea, R.D. (1994). Seeing what we build together: Distributed multimedia learning environments for transformative communications. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 3(3), 285-299.

Reiser, R. A. & Dempsey, J. V. (2001). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Roblyer, M.D., & Knezek, G.A. (2003). New millennium research for educational technology: A call for a national research agenda. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 36(1), 60-71.

Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York: Free Press.

Seels, B. B. & Richey, R. C. (1994). Instructional technology: The definition and domains of the field. Washington, DC: Association for Educational Communications and Technology.

Wiley, D. (2000). The instructional use of learning objects. Bloomington, IN: Association for Educational Communications and Technology.